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Anonymity and Personality Change


The Internet is the fastest growing medium in the history of the world to date. The different facets

of the Internet – chat, email, e-commerce, et al have touched millions of lives. There are few

whose lives have been isolated from the effect of this dramatic medium.

History teaches us that there is a definite impact of media on social change and the more impact

the medium has, the more significant the change it evokes. Given the speed of its adoption and

the versatility of its usage - the Internet has some claim to be the most influential medium the

world has seen. Understandably the Internet’s impact on many of its constituents has been very

high. While there are several areas where the effect of the Internet is highly apparent and some

that are not so apparent and need exploration.

The key differentiator between the Internet and earlier media forms is the attribute of

interactivity. The ability of the user to interact with the medium is one of the reasons why the

Internet has become so popular. Along with interactivity – the role of personalization makes the

Internet even more attractive to many users and this feature has definitely added to users’

appreciation of the medium.

Important to this paper is the fact that the Internet offers anonymity of identity to its users and

that anonymity has served many users to develop an alter ego or ‘another self’. This ‘other self’ is

used both as a cover as well as, at times, the manifestation of the ideal social self image. Internet

users have chosen to be anonymous in transactions across utilities like email, chat, discussion

forums, and even subscriptions to free services.

There are millions of people inhabiting chat rooms most of whom are operating under

pseudonyms or nicks, misrepresenting their personal details for safety as well as for role playing.

Consistent role -playing over a period of time could lead to a personality change amongst

individuals. When a consumer or group of consumers undergo a personality change, there is a

strong possibility that a set of brands that were purchased by these consumers may no longer be

relevant as the brands’ personality are no longer in line with the changed consumer personality. It

is also very possible that the consumer personality change can lead to a different set of brands

assuming relevance for these consumers because of the brands’ personality relevance to the

consumers’ new personalities.

The movement towards or away from their brand is extremely important for brand managers as

this would have a bearing on the brand’s standing in the market. Tracking the shift in personality

of consumers could be very difficult as the very anonymity that leads to personality change would

prevent identification of the chatters as consumers of a particular brand or subscribing to a set of

demographic parameters.

Explaining the concept:

Before looking at the possible effect of the anonymity provided by Internet chat rooms on

personality change, it is important to have an operating definition of the term personality

that is provided as (1) ‘the fairly stable patterns of thought, feeling and action that are

typical of an individual’.

Personality is unique for every individual however there are certain characteristics that an

individual may have that are similar to those of others. Personality is consistent and

enduring across most individuals and most people have fairly stable personalities over

time without any drastic changes.

However personality can change and over a period of time personality does change for a

lot of people. The change in personality in many cases can be linked to a change in selfimage.

Marketing implications: The similarity of personality across sets of individual sets

enables marketers to target segments and promote a brand based on its appeal to a

particular personality type. The fact that personality does not change drastically and is

fairly enduring gives the marketer the assurance that this segment will be in existence for

a period of time. The fact that personality does change means that marketers need to keep

in touch with their consumers and see the enduring relevance of their brand to the target



Internet chat rooms – some observations: One of the most popular past times on the

Internet is chat. Chat has caught the interest and imagination of a large number of Internet

users and some estimates state that the number of Internet chatters could be as many as

50 million. Chatting could be practiced in different ways based on the kind of software

available at the user’s disposal. Internet users chat on instant messenger based software,

chat room-based software and voice based software. Many studies indicate that chat room

participants are highly engrossed when they are chatting and show a high level of

concentration and involvement while chatting.

Other studies show that visiting a chat room can easily become a habit with some users

visiting chat rooms regularly for even over 5-7 years. The time put in the chat room is

often fairly significant ranging from 20 minutes to upto 2 hours. Some people chatting

from work are present in the chat room throughout the day however participating only

when they are free to do so. For some further observation on chat room participants

please refer Annexure 1.

Internet chat rooms and anonymity: The Internet with its thousands of chat rooms has

made it possible for millions of people to chat online with millions of others sharing the

same interests. Popular chat software like MIRC and ICQ has made it easy for total

strangers to get acquainted and form relationships over the net. Importantly chat on the

net is anonymous and so individuals are safe from being identified. Anonymity provides

different benefits to its practitioner. For some it enables them to be free of persecution by

cyber stalkers where as for others it enables one to interact without the burden of

operating under a particular stereotype. The freedom associated with operating under the

cloak of anonymity allows the individual to role -play and or develop/create an alter ego.

Role-playing and the creation of alter egos: In real life individuals tend to take into

consideration the expectations that others have from them. Across different situations an

individual ends up pla ying several roles including those of a child, sibling, spouse,

colleague, friend, etc. Each of these roles have with them a set of behavioural

expectations/tendencies associated with the individual in that particular role. However,

when chatting on the net, individuals under the cloak of anonymity can don their own

identity or alternatively assume an alter ego. (This paper does not judge individuals on

the basis of the chat rooms they visit or the role that individuals play in chat rooms but

only quotes the social phenomenon of online chatting and its possible implications.)

They can exhibit a totally different set of personality traits in their interaction on the net

as well as play a new set of roles that are unlike the ones they play in real life. For

example – Jack the car mechanic may on the net exhibit a very high degree of political

maturity and lead a conversation on political insularity in local politicians. He may not

exhibit this degree of erudition in real life for fear that people may laugh at his thoughts

due to his status as a mechanic. Creating an alter ego of that of a suave, influential person

allows Jack to play the role of an intellectual political thinker who has a message for the


Role-playing and self-image: Individuals have enduring images of themselves. These

images of self are closely linked to their personality. These images are multiple because

of the multiple roles that the individuals play across different occasions in life as

members of society. As per a popular model (2) there are four different types of selfimages:

1. Actual self image – how individuals see themselves

2. Ideal self image – how individuals would like to see themselves

3. Social self image – how individuals feel people see them

4. Ideal social self image – how individuals would like others to see them.

As an individual indulges in role -playing over a period of time, there is the possibility of

carrying the behaviour of the alter ego into real life. A person dissatisfied with his/her

actual self image and socia l self-image may try and create an alter ego aimed at moving

towards ideal social self-image. In the process of adopting this alter ego the person may

actually move towards his/her own ideal self-image.

A shy person may find himself becoming increasingly talkative in real life with his

shyness and fear of strangers diminishing due to confidence gained through his/her chat

room experiences. Similarly a person who is unable to become popular in a chat room

may feel humiliated and carry the hurt into real life. For some alleged personality change

cases – refer Annexure 2.

Change in self-image: The aforementioned psychological changes can lead to a change

in the individual’s self image. The example of a shy person gaining confidence in real life

due to chat room experiences could be due to a change in self-image. The acceptance as

an interesting ‘chatter’ may increase one’s self-confidence and change one’s self image.

The change may be slow and gradual and take some years to take place but the chances

of it happening are real. Some of the factors that can play a role in influencing personality

change are given below:

a. Duration of presence in chat room: For personality change to take place it is

believed that by and large the duration of interaction with other chat

members would need to be fairly long or alternatively the interaction could

be short but for sustained period so as to enable gradual personality change.

b. Intensity of experience in chat room: It is expected that more intense

experience could le ad to either more drastic personality change or

alternatively personality change in a shorter time span. In a world where

relationships that even culminate in marriage have been developed over the

Internet, there is a lot of intensity of experiences/ relationships possible in

Internet chat rooms.

c. Nature of chat rooms/ chat interaction: There are 1000s of chat rooms

catering to different topics of interest. While the topic of interest could have

significant bearing on personality change – ‘I get to talk to other people who

share my interests/problems and therefore I feel less alienated’ however the

more important point would seem to be the nature of chat interaction as this

is the facet that would possibly catalyse personality change – ‘I feel very

relaxed when I go in there – everyone likes me and I have great time. I lose

my inhibitions and feel very confident.’

Change in values, beliefs and attitudes: The change in self-image can lead to important

changes in values, beliefs and attitudes of the individua l. The relationship of change in

values, beliefs and attitudes and its impact on consumer purchase behaviour / brand

affinity has been well documented across marketing journals.

Implications for brand managers: Knowledge on change in beliefs, values, attitudes

and personality of consumers is vital to marketers. Critical to brand desirability is the

development of a brand personality that is indicative of the consumer segments’ real or

aspirational personality. If there is a change in the consumers’ personality then this could

have an impact on the extent of the desirability of a brand or set of brands. While one set

of brands may become less desirable to a consumer segment that has been affected by

personality change, another set of brands may be gaining in relevance to this consumer


Similarly a change in consumers value system could trigger a change in the kinds of

brands one looks at. For example, a person who does not feel accepted may suffer from

low self-esteem and may believe that he/she needs to build his/her desirability to be

accepted in society. Good looks and sociability may be core values to this kind of an

individual. The brands purchased may be in line with these values to buffer his/her selfesteem

or enhance sociability. A change in self-image could lead to a change in values to

more self-actualisation oriented values leading a different set of brands being more

relevant to this consumer because of their consonance to his/her new set of values.

Tracking personality change: Given the fact that the chat participants are anonymous it

is going to be extremely difficult to track personality changes and their consequent effect

on brands. It is however an important task and brands targeting similar consumer

segments could possibly collaborate to study the effect of personality change amongst

their consumer segments. Tracking personality changes of consumers is as important for

brands as is the importance of studying the changes in the demographic composition of

their target audiences.


(1). Robertson Ian. ‘Sociology’. 1977. Seventh Printing. Worth Publishers Inc. New

York. Chapter 5.Page 95.

(2). Joseph M Sirgy, ‘Self Concept in Consumer Behaviour – A Critical

Review’ Journal of Consumer Research 9 December, 1992, 287-300; cited in Leon G

Schiffman, Leslie Lazar Kanuk – Consumer Behaviour, Sixth Edition Prentice Hall of

India;1997 p137,143.

Annexure 1 – Some observations on why some people visit chat rooms regularly.

To understand better what makes some people vis it chat rooms regularly a small survey

was conducted amongst people who visit chat rooms. This survey was done by visiting

chat rooms at random across different sites. An unstructured questionnaire was used to

gather responses. A total of 300 respondents were questioned to get some basic

information on the kind of reasons why these respondents visited chat rooms.

While the sample size is too small to arrive at a definitive picture of why people visit chat

rooms it is sufficient to list out some of the broad reasons that influence their interest in


1. Knowing about other people: Chat rooms are seen to be a good way to exchange

ideas with other people. There is a belief that one can get to know a lot about how

people across the world react to different issues by interacting in a chat room. To

quote a respondent ‘ It is really weird to hear how differently some people think

about issues like family, adoption, abortion, national pride, etc. I guess the Net is a

good place to experience ideological diversity.’

2. As a sop for loneliness: The net seems to be the place for succour for a lot of lonely

people. Chat rooms seem to be a place where one feels accepted and the speed with

which relationships seem to develop is indicative of the depth of release some people


3. As a place to kill time: There are some people who visit chat rooms as a means of

killing time. Neither do they visit chat rooms often nor do they spend much time in

chat. Their intention in visiting is to entertain themselves for a short while.

4. As a meeting point for people who share special interests: People who share common

interests visit chat rooms to discuss with others who share these interests. Special

chat rooms catering to topics like cricket, Ally McBeal etc have these kinds of


Annexure 2 - Some cases of alleged personality change

The cases given below have been drawn out through chats with people from various chat rooms

over a period of time. As is the case in chat rooms – the respondents were anonymous and the

findings should be taken at face value in the absence of any means of verifying the same. The

research was undertaken with an unstructured questionnaire over a period of different chat

sessions. The sample size is not large enough to be conclusive but the findin gs provide a good

enough indication that personality change is a reality that some chat room visitors have


1. A 45-year-old divorcee with 2 children claims that chat rooms have helped rehabilitate

her emotionally. Following her divorce 14 years back she tended to become a loner with

her interest in group activities dropping. With lower self-confidence arising from her

divorce she felt lonely and had feelings of being unworthy of anyone’s lasting affection.

Over the last 7 years she has been regularly present in a multiple chat rooms and has

developed a set of cyber friends with whom she shares her problems. Even though she

knows that these friends are of no use to her due to their anonymity she feels that by

interacting with them and because of their solicitude she has gained confidence to

become more forthcoming and open in her real life and is willing to put behind her earlier

bad experience and build real life relationships with people. She is more confident and

self-assured than she was a few years earlier.

2. A 25-year-old student claims that his problem was shyness. His conversational skills

have improved over the last few years through participation in chat rooms and this

confidence has carried into his day-to-day life. While he continues to get bogged down in

real life conversations with people he finds it easier to ‘get into the groove’ and leave

behind his inhibitions than he did earlier. Consequently this student feels that he has

become a lot more outgoing than earlier.

There are several instances of people who have found the inability to break through a clique in a

chat room very disturbing and saw it as a sign of rejection leading to lower self esteem as this

happened across cases. There are also cases of people who have felt ‘cheated’ in their cyber

relationships as well ‘humiliated’ by chat room bullies who are as prevalent in chat rooms as they

are in real life.