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An intriguing question that has compelled me to venture to the domain of quantum mechanics and the uncertainty theory it advocates is to draw a parallel between applied sciences and social sciences. Often I feel like there are many surmounting questions imposing on the Mankind, ever since the Universe has come to the existence and Being is associated with it; which can collectively be answered by both. Right from the Big Bang Theory that delves into the secrets of the creation of the Universe to the Standard Model of Particle Physics (a theory that mediates the dynamics of sub-atomic particles) that has its basis in the microscopic level and which discards the Phenomenal Realm (things as they appear to exist) reasoning out the complexities on the basis of the Noumenal Realm (things as they exist); the logic is axiomatically simple-EVERYTHING CONCEIVED AS GIGANTIC HAS ITS ORIGINS IN SINGULARITY.
The very first interrogation in this series of sequential line of thought may come from the very fact that when both the Mind and the Body are conflated with the Being, why people perceive the macroscopic and sub-atomic phenomenon as two distinct realities. The very set of fundamental principles that governs the microscopic entities applies to the macroscopic entities as well and vice-versa. Reiterating my statement with an example- The Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle states that the Position and Momentum of a particle cannot be simultaneously and accurately measured.
Through the Reasons of Applied Sciences:At macroscopic domain it can be reinstated by giving the example of the Big-Bang theory which resulted in the expansion of time, space and matter. The very lack of determinism in predicting the dynamic nature of this Universe, its age, the number of different dimensions it holds in itself, its expanse etc. can be all attributed to the Uncertainty principle. I took an example at the extreme- that of the Cosmos, because other examples of the macroscopic level pertaining to the everyday life can’t be done without involving the Human presence. This very attribute of including the existence of the human in the study of system would tend to distort the Reality by the virtue of including human bias in the Understanding of the object. On the other hand at the microscopic level it is very well established that the sub-atomic particles depict a very probabilistic behavior, which attributes to the various phenomenon like Photo-electric effect or talking on a larger canvas of Public utility- how optical fiber cables carry telecommunication signals over large distances (when a LASER or LED source ejecting the electrons is located at one far end)-crossing the trans-continental and oceanic barriers just following the laws of transmission; or how simple electronic devices like Television Sets or Micro-Wave Ovens operate when an electron emitting source feeds them and this electron play leads to performing Wonders; or how the television Signals are processed, modulated at certain frequencies so as to be transmitted from a TV station through the Waveguides, fed to the Antenna and thereafter broadcasted at an Uplink frequency to tune it with the satellite and make it globally accessible. This concordance of the microscopic particles with the macroscopic entities indicates the symbiosis between the most substratum entity and the functioning of a system-which may be as complex as a human brain! Thus Hobbsian philosophical method of Resolutive-Composite methodcan aptly be deduced from this. According to this method, one comes to understand a given object of inquiry by intellectually “resolving” it into its constituent parts and then subsequently “composing” it back into a whole. For Hobbes, such a process may be used when investigating a natural body (such as a chair or a man), an abstract body (such as a circle), or a political body (such as a commonwealth). So, to use Hobbes’s example, one can intellectually resolve the idea of a human being into the following ideas: “rational,” “animated,” and “body”. The same analogy is given by the Hindu Mythology on two grounds-One, Material: resolving the human body into its five constituents viz. Earth, Sky, Water, Fire, Air and Two, Spiritual: resolving him into Sat, Chit and Anand. On the other hand, one can compose the idea of a man by reconstructing these concepts. In the process of resolving and composing a thing, one is able to discover its essential qualities. Mathematically, it can be argued that if the Human Existence can be described in the form of a differential equation, the solution to it can be found out by first differentiating it (using any of the three approaches-variable separable, homogeneous or linear differential equation; that best fits the context derived as the function of society, culture, time etc.) and then by integrating it with a common solution to get the General Solution. This process is analogous to taking apart a watch and putting it back together again to find out what makes it tick. Hobbes used the method of resolution and composition in his science of politics.
Through the reasons of Social Sciences: I would refer to Professor Jayant V. Narlikar’s work on metaphysics and try to relate Being, the line of our Thoughts, our Sub-Conscious with Quantum Mechanics here. An Individual, seemingly though, a tiny unit of this large cosmos, contains in itself the entire Ethos. The Complex Reality of his being exhibits a phenomenon of Duality every time. This in essence means that many a times turn of events culminates into those actions that may not be desired by an Individual in accordance with the Schopenhauer’s concept of Cosmic Will; but the Human Mind enters into a duel with the imposed truth and its Individual Will. Though in the Phenomenal Realm a net balanced result of so called Good Will prevails-in consensus with the Morality and to a lesser extent Ethics (since they are a function of time and place), the Noumenal Realm that is adjudicated by the Consciousness may enter into Soliloquy. His chain of thoughts may trigger the neurons of his brain, eventually enabling him to make a transition from One World to Another World! There may be several Worlds existing at one point of time, but the World in which the person may make transition is highly probabilistic. Surprising it may sound but this phenomenon of transition is further strengthened by Mathematics on the basis of Catastrophe Theory. Any practical situation prevailing in the materialistic world can be modeled mathematically. This mathematical modeling would include the formation of an equation out of the situation based on the classification of all the parameters involved in the System as either dependent or independent variables or constants. If a change occurring in any one of the parameters may completely reverse the behavior of the system, thus annihilating it, it would lead to the birth of a new reality in concordance with the Individual Will.
Y= 4x^2 + ax + b
The above equation for instance represents a shifted parabola. If a=b=0, then the curve will become a standard parabola and if, suppose x=0, then Y=b will result in a straight line parallel to the x-axis- completely distorting the parabolic shape. Linking this Catastrophe theory to the present situations, we blame the moribund state of our current political, economic as well as social institutions, to a larger extent, to the British Rule. If supposing, the British East India Company had lost to the Indian upsurge, in the Revolt of 1857- The First War of Indian Independence, there would have been no Foreign rule in India post 1857, the Nation would have followed a rather different course- may be that of Monarchy under the Delhi Sultanate, or Dictatorship or a Democracy very different from what we witness now. Or, a world that would exist based on the proposition that British East India Company decided to trade from India, as a nodal center, from a certain pockets like Bombay, Madras and Calcutta only, the turn of events would be entirely different from the present state.
Thus, a same person may witness two different worlds at the same point of time- neither travelling to the Past nor travelling to the Future. He stays very much in present but experiencing the Two Frames of References. This idea may at one instance of time lead to the thought of time travel- through a worm hole. But no! It is an entirely different picture where only the sub-atomic particles of the conscience are triggered to either make a transition to the higher energy state and radiate energy or make a transition to the lower energy state and hence absorb energy. I tried to maintain sync between the Social Theory and metaphysics here. This may help in answering many hovering doubts on Reason and Rationality. Rationality as perceived by the rationalists is the exercise of pure reason to arrive at a substantial conclusion about the nature of reality. Its guiding structure has to be purely objective. But, owing to the unavoidable presence of the Subject, objective knowledge may be sufficed with the objectified knowledge. Proving it mathematically, the term Rational expresses any number of the form p/q such that q is not equal to 0. Since if the denominator becomes zero, the expression may take an indeterminate form, rightly so, rationality may be defined as anything and everything that is reasonable and done with a purpose of meeting one’s material ends. This statement of mine, may seem preposterous, as it validates the event of a man murdering another as being rational. But, no propositions to the rationality of the man who murdered another can be made until the reason why he did so and the context in which he did it can be established with full merits. In lieu with this, the point where Reason and Rationality end, faith begins-we enter the domain of metaphysics. As an illustration I would like to state the many theories and models that have tried to figure out the Structure of the Atom. Only the existence of the nucleus has been established with the efforts of Rutherford’s Gold Leaf Experiment. The inferences drawn of it were the composition of the nucleus as positive containing positively charged protons plus neutrally charged neutrons. But since the fundamental principles of Nature had to be followed it was emphasized that the atom as a whole had to be electrically neutral-giving rise to the supposed discovery of the negatively charged neutrons. Further studies regarding the atom’s structure led to the postulates governing the motion of electrons in fixed orbitals. Though this movement is not seen by anyone, still it is supposed to exist-A METAPHYSICAL STATEMENT! This may even account for the statement whether God exists or not.
Hence I conclude my article with a note that the disciplines of Applied Sciences or Social Sciences are only a form of realizing the ever pervading truth stated by Hobbes that the World is moving to an indefinite end or the self realization of the infinite spirit (Geist). The tools of Mathematics, Physics, Philosophy, Political Science etc. may only serve as instruments in realizing the Ultimate Idiom of Truth either through Epistemology (Pursuit of Knowledge) or Ontology (Pursuit of Being).