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Terrorism in India

Terrorism is not new, and even though it has been used since the beginning of recorded history it can be relatively hard to define. Terrorism has been described variously as both a tactic and strategy; a crime and a holy duty; a justified reaction to oppression and an inexcusable abomination. Obviously, a lot depends on whose point of view is being represented. Terrorism has often been an effective tactic for the weaker side in a conflict. As an asymmetric form of conflict, it confers coercive power with many of the advantages of military force at a fraction of the cost. Due to the Secretive nature and small size of terrorist organizations, they often offer opponents no clear organization to defend against or to deter.
The United States Department of Defensedefines terrorism as "the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological." Within this definition, there are three key elements violence, fear, and intimidation- and each element produces terror in its victims. The FBI uses this: "Terrorism is the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives." The U.S. Department of State defines "terrorism" to be "premeditated politically-motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.
The United Nationsproduced this definition in 1992; "An anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets." The most commonly accepted academic definition starts with the U.N. definition quoted above,
The British Governmentdefinition of 1974 is the use of violence for political ends, and includes any use of violence for the purpose of putting the public, or any section of the public in fear."There are three perspectives of terrorism: the terrorist's, the victim’s public’s. The phrase "one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter” is a view terrorists themselves would accept. Terrorists do not see themselves as evil. They believe they are legitimate combatants, fighting for what they believe in by whatever means possible A victim of a terrorist act sees the terrorist as a criminal with no regard for human life. 
The French Revolution provided the first uses of the words "Terrorist" and "Terrorism". Use of the word "terrorism" began in 1795 in reference to the Reign of Terror initiated by the Revolutionary government. The agents of the Committee of Public Safety and the National Convention that enforced the policies of "The Terror" were referred to as Terrorists". The French Revolution provided an example to future states in oppressing their populations. It also inspired a reaction by royalists and other opponents of the Revolution who employed terrorist tactics such as assassination and intimidation in resistance to the Revolutionary agents.
Major terrorist attacks in India

Terrorism has and is effecting and coming in the way of life of the people who want to live in peace .that is the reason, where the government to talk all necessary measure to prevent and eliminate any form of terror as terrorist activity  that effect the basic fabric of a society.  Given the nature of diversity in the Indian society, there is a need on the put of the government to involve a system of consensus and cooperation from people of all walks of life.
In “Terrorism a global phenomenon”,  Author Sudhir Kumar Singh, discuss terrorism and its mindless acts which effect the people and the state where it is employed . He cites the example of terrorist activities employed in different countries such as Malaysia,  Kenya, Vietnam and also the Sikh terrorism in Punjab . He also discusses terrorist activities in the Middle Eastern region of the world and those of the Europe terrorist refits activates of Baader - Meinhof gang.       
“Kashmir; roots of conflict, paths to peace” by Sumantra Bose discusses the terrorism which is a result of the dispute between India and Pakistan over Kashmir.   He stresses that the roots of the crisis in the post -1947 history of denial of democratic rights and institutions to the people of Jammu & Kashmir, particularly those of Jammu and Kashmir.
 Bose also compares Kashmir to other global hotspots of terrorism such as that of I & A and the subsequent peace frame-work in northern Ireland which offers important lessons for a similar process in Kashmir.
In “Terrorism threat to peace and harmony,” the author H.B. Mishra explains about the concept of terrorism. He also explains the effects of terrorism and the potential problems that emanate that eminent from it. He takes a hard look at the problem of terrorism in modern world.
The term terrorism has been interpreted by many in different ways, mostly depending upon the point of view one takes on an issue. It has also gone through various transformations, to include newer aspects. But some of the basic aspects and meaning of the term has remained the same. over the years. Terrorism involves acts of violence by groups of people with a political motive or purpose. Terrorism has existed in different forms since the early days of human civilization. What has dramatically changed is the great proliferation that has taken place in the modern period. It now poses a threat entire societies and the democratic way of life. What was once a small and isolated thing called terror now become common leading large scale death and destruction.
Since the 1960s which Since the 1960s which is generally seen as the turning point of modern day terrorism, a wide variety of terrorist groups have sprung up around the world. The rise of ethnic movements and religion based movements has given further impetus to this trend. The threat posed by these terrorist groups is manifested by their tactics and approach to violence. Many of their acts involve hijacking, assassination; bombs blasting etc, these are now termed under the category of traditional terrorism and are the most common practice with most groups. But what is a more worrisome is that terrorist groups are now capable of using WMD means which can have catastrophic results. These are the threats from new terrorism.
An approach to counter terrorism needs a very clear understanding of the essence and the objectives of terrorism. Computer terrorism has to be multifaceted and multi functional, involving various professional and social groups. Each of these has a definite role to play in the battle against terrorism.
Diplomacy also plays a crucial role in developing international approach to counter terrorism. To implement the policies against terrorism the state needs well articulated mechanisms and procedures. It also needs to muster the resources to implement the policies like an efficient intelligence system skilled special units. There is also a need for well laid out security arrangements to deter and deny terrorists any freedom of action. Preventive and active counter measures are also needed to combat terrorist in their most common battle ground - the bomb and explosive. The acts of state terrorism or state sponsored terrorism are quite common and it needs a different approach to counter it. Such an effort will commonly be an international collective effort to match the size and strength of the player. The new threats of terror under the new terrorism also need a different treatment to the problem. It also needs a different understanding of the nature of these types of techno-terrorism to counter the threat. The battle against terrorism is not all in the physical domain. The first battles against terrorism that can give lasting victories are fought against the minds of terrorists. Psychological operations therefore are an important aspect of the counter terrorism battle. An important tool exploited by the terrorist to advance their cause is the media.
In this age of all encompassing influence of media, the role played by the media is crucial to any side of the battle line. But in an environment of free press and total coverage there is a big dilemma about media coverage of terrorist incidents. The need is one of self restraint  on the part of a responsible media.
Modern technology is having profound impact on the nature of contemporary or future terrorism. The possibility of terrorists using WMD is becoming real. The potential of cyber-terrorism is another growing threat that will have to be met by most countries. Counter terrorism efforts need concerted effort not only by national governments but by the international community.